study of the energy saving possible by automatic control of mechanical draft cooling tower fans by Gordian Associates

Cover of: study of the energy saving possible by automatic control of mechanical draft cooling tower fans | Gordian Associates

Published by U.S. Federal Energy Administration, Office of Industrial Programs, For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. Govt. Print. Off. in Washington .

Written in English

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Subjects:

  • Fans (Machinery),
  • Cooling towers -- Design and construction,
  • Energy conservation -- United States

Edition Notes

Book details

Statement[Gordian Associates, Inc.]
SeriesConservation paper -- 41, Conservation paper (United States. Office of Energy Conservation and Environment) -- no. 41
ContributionsUnited States. Federal Energy Administration
The Physical Object
Paginationv, 25 p. :
Number of Pages25
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15479646M

Download study of the energy saving possible by automatic control of mechanical draft cooling tower fans

Depending on the way how the ambient air circulates inside the cooling tower, there can be two major types of a wet cooling tower: mechanical and natural draft. In mechanical draft cooling towers the air is moved by power-driven fan motors to force it go through the tower.

Evaluate the energy use of the cooling tower, this is mainly the fan and pump horsepower (HP). Ensure the cooling tower meets ASHRAE standards with regard to HP per cooling ton at a minimum.

If there is available area, there will be even lower HP cooling tower options that enable a great amount of energy savings year after year. Mechanical draft cooling towers are much more widely used than natural draft cooling tower.

Mechanical towers utilize large fans to force air through circulated water. The water falls downward over fill surfaces which help increase the contact time between the water and the air.

This helps maximize heat transfer between the by: Cooling rates of Mechanical draft towers depend upon their fan diameter and speed of operation. Since, the mechanical draft cooling towers are much more widely used.

Natural Draft Cooling Tower: Counter Flow Natural Draft Cooling Tower. Cross flow Natural Draft Cooling Tower 2. Mechanical Draft Cooling Tower. screw chiller and a mechanical-draft counter-flow wet cooling tower.

The ESC scheme takes the total power consumption of the chiller compressor and the tower fan as feedback, and uses the fan speed setting as the control input.

The inner-loop controllers for the chiller operation include two proportional-integral (PI) control loops for. integral part of this system present a significant area to study and determine possible energy saving measures.

More specifically, operation of cooling towers in economizer mode in winter (in areas where winter temperatures drop to 40°F and below) and variable frequency drives (VFDs) on cooling tower fans [1] are measures that can provide.

COOLING TOWER Bureau of Energy Efficiency Syllabus Cooling Tower:Types and performance evaluation, Efficient system operation, Flow control strategies and energy saving opportunities, Assessment of cooling towers Introduction Cooling towers are a very important part of many chemical plants.

The primary task of a cool. Work with your cooling tower water treatment specialist to maximize the cycles of concentration. Many systems operate at two to four cycles of concentration, while six cycles or more may be possible. Increasing cycles from three to six reduces cooling tower make-up water by 20% and cooling tower blowdown by 50%.

Mechanical draft and natural draft. Induced Mechanical draft. most common, fan on top pulls air up through tower,louvers direct air in and fill direct water to fall. Less efficient because of slowing of air flow making higher rate of hot vapor recirculation.

Atmospheric natural draft CT. Monitor cooling tower, pumps, motors, fans, drive. The main areas for improving the energy efficiency of cooling towers are: Selecting the right cooling tower (because the structural aspects of the cooling tower cannot be changed after it is installed) Fills Pumps and water distribution system Fans and motors We will go through these one by one on the next slides.

inlet at thebottom. designed cooling towers that Mechanical draft cooling tower Mechanical draft towers have large fans to force or draw air through circulated water. The water falls downwards over fill surfaces, which help increase the contact time between the water and the air -thishelps maximize heat transfer between the two.

STUDY. Flashcards. Learn. Write. Spell. Test. PLAY. Match. Gravity. Created by. JasmineJYoung. type of mechanical-draft cooling tower that uses fans to push air into the tower. induced draft. type of mechanical draft cooling tower that uses fans to pull air out of the tower.

control heat energy b. conserve energy c. increase. A significant percentage of today’s cooling tower installations are specified with variable frequency drives, however existing cooling towers should not be overlooked when considering this technology.

The inherent benefits in a cooling tower application can be; • Power savings • Soft start and reduced wear of mechanical components. In natural gas power plant, we have cooling tower 13 cells, 2 gas turbines, and 1 steam turbine (full load). I would like to know if we start 1 gas turbine and 1 steam turbine (half load), but the.

A cooling tower’s function is to remove heat from a building or process application that generates heat and must be dissipated. The fundamental principal employed in accomplishing this removal of heat is the evaporation of water.

How this evaporat. fans use a rotating impeller to increase the velocity of an airstream. As the air moves from the impeller hub to the blade tips, it gains kinetic energy. This kinetic energy is then converted to a static pressure increase as the air slows before entering the discharge.

Centrifugal fans are capable of generating relatively high pressures. Thermal performance of a cooling tower depends principally on the entering air wet-bulb temperature. The entering air dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, talcen independently, have an insignificant effect " on thermal verformance of mechanical-draft cooling towers, but do affect the rate of water evaporation in the cooling tower.

Cooling towers are of two types: natural-draft and mechanical-draft. The cooling is accomplished by the evaporation of a small fraction (approximately 1 to 2%) of the water. You are replacing the cooling tower fan motor bearings because: 1) The gear reducer pinion shaft was misaligned.

2) The motor was running single phase. 3) Windings in the motor were faulty. 4) The rotor was rubbing the stator. 5) A noise that sounded like a bad bearing was heard. Mechanical draft cooling towers are much more widely used.

These towers utilize large fans to force air through circulated water. The water falls downward over fill surfaces which help increase the contact time between the water and the air.

This helps maximize heat transfer between the two. Mechanical Draft. Providing comfort cooling and energy efficiency in nonresidential buildings is an ongoing task for engineers and designers as they increasingly have to focus on energy-efficient building codes and high-performance buildings.

A building’s energy impact is determined by initial design decisions, operations, and the owner’s project budget. Forced Draft & Induced Draft Cooling Towers Process Cooling tower fans are used on induced draft cooling towers to pull air up through the fill media.

On forced draft cooling towers, the air is pushed/forced by blowers at the bottom of the air inlet louver. Devices used in a cooling tower to keep water from blowing out are called Drift eliminator ___ is a term applied to the horizontal direction that air takes in relationship to the downward flow of water in a cooling tower.

___ is a term applied to the vertical flow of air as it moves through a cooling tower in relationship to the downward flow. The major concern during I study the cooling tower theory was how to computerize the cooling tower theory from the calculation of NTU to the cooling tower performance analysis.

If you read this book carefully, you can make any cooling tower design programs by yourself. Again, this will be a first issue releasing the actual engineering approach. of possible energy savings which will be investigated. The first part of the redesign proposal will focus on changing the water-to-air heat pump system to a water-to-water heat pump system thus reducing energy usage by inefficient fans and replacing with highly efficient pumps.

The redesign is to include radiant floor heating and. Conventional control strategies keep the cooling pump operating at full speed all the time, and control the cooling water temperature by modulating the tower fan speed.

In this work, an energy-e cient control strategy is proposed, that minimizes the combined consumption of the tower fans and circulation pump, while also avoiding the sustained. FANS AND BLOWERS Bureau of Energy Efficiency 93 Syllabus Fans and blowers:Types, Performance evaluation, Efficient system operation, Flow control strategies and energy conservation opportunities Introduction Fans and blowers provide air for ventilation and industrial process requirements.

Fans generate. A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that rejects waste heat to the atmosphere through the cooling of a water stream to a lower temperature. Cooling towers may either use the evaporation of water to remove process heat and cool the working fluid to near the wet-bulb air temperature or, in the case of closed circuit dry cooling towers, rely solely on air to cool the working fluid to near.

Traditionally, energy recommendations from energy audits have been concerned with the energy use of cooling towers for point of use energy, such as variable speed fans, and pumping savings.

The actual energy use of a cooling tower is small, and is only a portion of the energy involved in the entire cooling.

Elsarrag, E. Experimental study and predictions of an induced draft ceramic tile packing cooling tower. Energy Conversion and Management 47[] Jorge, F., and C.O. Armando. Thermal behavior of closed wet cooling towers for use with chilled ceilings. Appl Therm Eng Jose, A.S. No matter how efficient, a cooling tower can never chill the recirculating water to the wet bulb temperature, and at some point costs and space requirements limit cooling tower size.

Cooling towers are rated in terms of cooling tower approach and cooling tower range, where the approach is the difference in temperature between the cooled-water temperature and the air wet bulb – twb – temperature.

Example from below data Approach 85 – 80 = 5 F. the range is the temperature drop across the tower Example from below data. Thermal performance of a cooling tower depends mainly on the entering air wet-bulb temperature. The entering air dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, taken independently, have an insignificant effect on thermal performance of mechanical-draft cooling towers, but do affect the rate of water evaporation in the cooling tower.

Airvention Tower Fan FZ09, Ultra Quiet Cooling, Wide Angle Oscillating Air Circulator, Small Footprint Design, 32 inch Middle Tower, Floor Standing Fan, Energy Saving, 3.

Although cooling towers are generally some of the most cost-effective cooling mechanisms as compared to other cooling technologies (such as many dry air cooling systems), it is still important to monitor your industrial cooling tower efficiency and run it as seamlessly as possible.

This thesis evaluates the economics of alternative cooling tower capacity control methods. Annual fan electrical energy requirements are calculated for towers with single-speed, two-speed, and variable-speed fans. Fan energy requirements are determined for counter-flow and cross-flow towers designed for low initial cost and for energy efficiency.

An initial energy and demand end-use breakdown of the facility identified that the process cooling systems were the second largest energy user in the facility, see Figure 2. We 3 An overview of the Five Stage Approach is included in Energy Star™s Draft Guide for Instituting A Strategic.

Furthermore, mechanical draft towers may be of forced draft or induced draft design. A forced draft tower has a fan or blower that is located where the ambient air stream enters the tower and that forces the air through the fill as shown schematically in Figure 2(a).

Figure 2: Forced draft cooling tower.(a) Cooling tower (b) Temperature. Multiple fans work best in rooms longer than 18 feet. Small- and medium-sized fans will provide efficient cooling in a 4- to 6-foot diameter area, while larger fans are effective up to 10 feet. A larger blade will also provide comparable cooling at a lower velocity than a smaller blade.

On/off and variable speed control of the system fans and pumps can give large energy savings, but the selection of methods depends on the detailed design of the cooling plant.

(figure 12). These can be controlled sequentially or by speed reduction, with substantial energy savings possible through speed reduction at times of low cooling duty.

There are many different types of cooling towers but the cooling tower working principles stay pretty much the cooling towers work based on the principle of “evaporative cooling“. What is Evaporative Cooling? Evaporative cooling is the process where warm water from an industrial process is pumped up to the top of the cooling tower where the water distribution system is.type of draft (mechanical or natural).

Mechanical Draft Towers – Mechanical draft towers have air forced through the structure by a fan. The air flow can be pushed through by fans located at the base of the tower (referred to as forced draft), or pulled through by fans located at the top of the tower (referred to as induced draft).Study Chapter Cooling Towers flashcards from dylan Kobe's's Lakeland College class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app.

Learn faster with spaced repetition.

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